The Divine judgment and the role of angels based on the ontology of God : an evaluation of two conflicting models
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The role of angels in the Divine Judgment setting and the resultant description of angelic participation in the Final Judgment have been delineated in different ways in diverse paradigms and theological systems. The wide spectrum of angelic functions varies from a non-existent to a prominent and active description of their presence in the Final Judgment. This dissertation addresses the conflict of interpretation between the determinist model and the collaborative model regarding the role of angels in the Final Judgment by implementing a canonical methodology and a theological discussion based m m inductive study of the entire canon. Chapter I presents the background problem statement purpose, scope and delimitations, presuppositions, methodological steps, and a review of relevant literature. Chapter 2 surveys the historical background of the role of angels in the Final Judgment by selecting influential representatives. Chapter 3 describes and analyzes the ontological and methodological frameworks of the conflicting models as well as the sources and causes of the theological impasse. In the determinist model, the role of angels in the Final Judgment is passive since the eternal decree of God is the steering wheel of theological expressions. Angels are present as assistants and ministers. In the collaborative model, the role of angels in the Final Judgment is more active since the cosmic controversy is regarded as the context of theological articulation. The angels' the role includes the revision of celestial records. Chapter 4 reports on an inductive investigation and biblical overview of the role of angels in the Divine Judgment setting in order to address the issues of conflicting models. The findings of the inductive canonical study are used to theologically and systematically describe angels in Chapter 5 as spectators, auditors, and executors in the Final Judgment. These activities include the angelic roles as companions, guardians, observers, evaluators, enunciators of decrees, protectors, destroyers, and applicators of decisions. The canonical material is used to critically analyze and evaluate the determinist and collaborative models. Implications in the wider doctrines of God, the Final Judgment, and the role of angels on it are delineated as well. It is recognized that the use of analogical descriptions of nowadays' judicial procedures falls short of the complex nature and actions of angels in the Final Judgment. Chapter 6 closes with the summary, conclusions, and recommendations for further studies.