Ezekiel 28:11-19 and the possibility of its double reference/application
Unpublished Thesis (MAR)
Muhasa, Kambale Waytsye
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The objective of this study was to see the possibility of double reference/application of Ezek 28:11-19. The study began by considering the various scholarly views regarding the addressee of Ezek 28:11-19. Basically, the contention of scholars has been on the identity of the king of Tyre. Through an exegetical study, I attempted to address the problem of Ezek 28:11-19 and the possibility of its double reference/application to the king of Tyre and Lucifer/Satan. The study reveals three observable points. First, the idea of double reference/application is common in the Bible. It is presented in different biblical literary genres such as parables, allegories, proverbs and prophetic oracles. Second, the prophetic oracles that apply to Satan in their descriptions seem to be common to the Israelites before the time of Ezekiel. This is reflected in the literary contexts of Gen 3; 13-15 and Isa 14:12-14. Third, Ezek 28:11-19 is one of the prophetic oracles that show double reference/application to the king of Tyre and Lucifer. A careful study of Ezek 28:11-19 shows that the addressee of this passage should not be understood as referring only to the literal king of Tyre or only to Lucifer. The language of the text indicates that both the king of Tyre and Lucifer are in view and should be understood as such. In this, it may be understood that the king of Tyre shared the same characteristics of haughtiness with Lucifer. The writer of Ezekiel could use for the king of Tyre expressions suitable and commonly used for Lucifer among the Jews (as in Job 1-2; 1 Chr 21:1; Zech 3:1-2). Thus, these descriptions in Ezek 28;11-19 may be understood as originally referring to Lucifer but now applied to the king of Tyre.
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